… Rome was a small Italian city that rose in importance until it dominated the entire Mediterranean area. The city was first ruled as a monarchy, then as a republic, and finally converted into an empire.
Until 509 BC, Rome was governed by kings. After the legendary founder, Romulus, its rulers were from the tribe of Sabines, followed by Etruscans. The last king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus.
Under the Republic, the city was governed by a Senate, controlled by the Patricians and two Consuls, who were elected for one year.
Rome gradually extended its territory by conquering its neighbours, the Etruscans, the Latins and the Samnites. It then occupied the southern regions of the peninsula where the Greeks had founded a large number of colonies.
During the Punic Wars, Rome fought against Carthage and gradually gained control over its territories in the western Mediterranean. The city of Carthage was captured and totally destroyed in 146 BC
In the west, Rome invaded Southern Gaul and took over a large area of today’s Spain.
To the east, it invaded Macedonia and Greece and occupied the Kingdom of Pergamum.
As a result, Rome controlled most of the Mediterranean’s northern coast…
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